Vitamin B12 Monograph

Scientific name of Vitamin B12:
Cyanocobalamin

Action of Vitamin B12:
Formation of red blood cells; DNA synthesis; aids in neurotransmitter formation

Vitamin B12 is used for these functions in the body and brain:
Cognitive health; nervous system function; relief of fatigue caused by everyday stress

Find Vitamin B12 in these Clarocet blends:

Clarocet NRI® Immediate Response Capsules™
promote fast-acting relaxation when you need it most.

Clarocet ERT® Extended Release Tablets™
promote positive mood balance all day strong.

Clarocet CS® Controlled Release Tablets™
promote long-lasting energy and mental sharpness.

Clarocet PM® Rapid Release Capsules™
promote a deep, restful night's sleep.

Clarocet Junior® Easy-to-Swallow Tablets™
support Emotional Wellness in kids ages 7 thru 13.

An Overview of Vitamin B12

B12, or Cyanocobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that occurs naturally in animal products such as dairy foods, eggs, fish, poultry and other meats. Fortified breads and cereals are also a good source of Cyanocobalamin for vegetarians.

Vitamin B12 supplementation has been shown to provide positive support for:

  • Emotional stress
  • Depressed mood
  • Cognitive health
  • Nervous system function

Cyanocobalamin is an essential vitamin that the body is unable to produce on its own. Therefore, it must be replenished every day through the diet and/or supplementation. Cyanocobalamin deficiency may result in tiredness, fatigue and weakness, loss of appetite, weight loss, irritability, depressed mood and mental confusion.

Science and Pharmacology of Vitamin B12

B12, or Cyanocobalamin, is a cofactor. Cofactors are the most important components required to maintain fundamental processes throughout the body. Basic nervous system functions such as neurotransmitter synthesis and healthy cell-to-cell communication would not be possible without the presence of necessary vitamin, mineral and amino acid cofactors.

Supplementing a balanced diet with Vitamin B12 has been clinically shown to promote energy and positive mood balance. Because of its nutritive value, Cyanocobalamin is used in several Clarocet formulations along with other essential vitamins, minerals and amino acids that are associated with healthy nervous system function.

Vitamin B12 Safety and Usage

Recommended Daily Allowances (RDAs) are the amounts of vitamins and minerals needed to provide for adequate nutrition in most healthy persons. RDAs for a given nutrient may vary depending on a person’s age, sex and physical condition, including considerations like pregnancy.

This chart shows the recommended daily amounts of Vitamin B12 for different groups:

Infants and children (Birth to 3  years) 0.3 – 0.7 mcg
4 to 6 years of age 1 mcg
7 to 10 years of age 1.4 mcg
 Adolescent and adult males 2 mcg
Adolescent and adult females 2 mcg

What are the potential side effects of Vitamin B12?

Side effects have not been reported as a result of Vitamin B12 use.

Is Vitamin B12 safe for children?

Vitamin B12 is generally well tolerated when used in children. Because each child is unique, Vitamin B12 should be administered under the supervision of a professional healthcare provider.

Does Vitamin B12 adversely interact with prescription drugs?

Vitamin B12 has no known contraindications. If you are taking a prescription medication, it is recommended that you consult with your prescribing doctor before making any changes or additions to your current treatment plan.

What precautions should I take before beginning Vitamin B12?

Consult with your healthcare provider before beginning a wellness plan that includes dietary supplements like Vitamin B12.

Vitamin B12 Clinical Studies

1. Stress and Anxiety
National Institute for Health
Medline Plus; Nov. 3, 2003 [Read the Full Text ]

2. Vitamin B-12, folate, and homocysteine in depression: the Rotterdam Study.
Tiemeier H, van Tuijl HR, Hofman A, Meijer J, Kiliaan AJ, Breteler MM.
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Erasmus Medical Centre, The Netherlands.
Am J Psychiatry. 2002 Dec;159(12):2099-101. PMID: 12450964 [Read the Abstract]

3. Depression and anxiety in the elderly still underdiagnosed. SSRI preparations in conjunction with psychotherapy provide effective treatment
Gottfries CG, Karlsson I.
Institutionen for klinisk neurovetenskap, Goteborgs universitet, psykiatriska kliniken, Sahlgrenska Universitetssjukhuset/Molndal.
Lakartidningen. 2001 Feb 21;98(8):821-7. PMID: 11265567 [Read the Abstract]

4. Psychiatric manifestations of vitamin B-12 deficiency: a case report
Durand C, Mary S, Brazo P, Dollfus S.
Centre Esquirol, Service du Professeur S. Dollfus
Encephale. 2003 Nov-Dec;29(6):560-5. PMID: 15029091 [Read the Abstract]

5. Homocysteinemia in psychiatric disorders: association with dementia and depression, but not schizophrenia in female patients.
Reif A, Schneider MF, Kamolz S, Pfuhlmann B.
J Neural Transm. 2003 Dec;110(12):1401-11. Epub 2003 Oct 24.PMID: 14666412 [Read the Abstract]

6. Folate, vitamin B12, and neuropsychiatric disorders
Bottiglieri T.
Kimberly H. Courtwright and Joseph W. Summers Institute of Metabolic Disease, Baylor University Medical Center,USA.
Nutr Rev. 1996 Dec;54(12):382-90. PMID: 9155210 [Read the Abstract]

7. The clinical potential of ademetionine (S-adenosylmethionine) in neurological disorders.
Bottiglieri T, Hyland K, Reynolds EH.
Metabolic Disease Center, Baylor Research Institute
Drugs. 1994 Aug;48(2):137-52. PMID: 7527320 [Read the Abstract]

8. Homocysteine, folate, methylation, and monoamine metabolism in depression.
Bottiglieri T, Laundy M, Crellin R, Toone BK, Carney MW, Reynolds EH.
Department of Neurology, King's College Hospital
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2000 Aug;69(2):228-32. PMID: 10896698 [Read the Abstract]

9. Randomized trial of folic acid supplementation and serum homocysteine levels.
Wald DS, Bishop L, Wald NJ, Law M, Hennessy E, Weir D, McPartlin J, Scott J.
Department of Cardiology, St Richard's Hospital, England.
Arch Intern Med. 2001 Mar 12;161(5):695-700. PMID: 11231701 [Read the Abstract]

10. Vitamin B 12
National Library of Medicine, Micromedex, Pharmacopeia Drug Information, Volume II
Medline Plus; Rev.:June. 23, 2000 [Read the Full Text]

Related online research destinations

Last Updated: February 2012 [PHMF-02-0]