Choline Monograph

Scientific name of Choline:
Phosphatidylcholine

Action of Choline:
Supports a healthy neurotransmitter balance and nervous system function

Choline is used for these common wellness concerns:
Healthy nervous system function; attention span, focus, memory and other healthy cognitive functions; positive mood balance; normal physical performance

Find Choline in these Clarocet blends:

Clarocet NRI® Immediate Response Capsules™
promote fast-acting relaxation when you need it most.

Clarocet ERT® Extended Release Tablets™
promote positive mood balance all day strong.

Clarocet CS® Controlled Release Tablets™
promote long-lasting energy and mental sharpness.

Clarocet PM® Rapid Release Capsules™
promote a deep, restful night's sleep.

Clarocet Junior® Easy-to-Swallow Tablets™
support Emotional Wellness in kids ages 7 thru 13.

An Overview of Choline

Choline is a fatty acid considered to be part of the essential B-Complex vitamins. Common food sources include iceberg lettuce, cauliflower, potatoes, peanuts, eggs and whole milk.
Clinical research shows that Choline supplementation may help to provide positive support for:

  • Healthy nervous system function
  • Healthy cognitive functions such as alertness, concentration and memory
  • Normal respiratory function
  • The utilization of other fat-soluble nutrients such as Vitamins E and K

Choline is an important physiological agent that the body is unable to produce on its own. Therefore, it should be replenished every day through the diet or through dietary supplementation.

Science and Pharmacology of Choline

Choline is a cofactor. Cofactors are the most important components required to maintain fundamental processes throughout the body. Basic nervous system functions such as neurotransmitter synthesis and healthy cell-to-cell communication would not be possible without the presence of necessary vitamin, mineral and amino acid cofactors.

Supplementing a balanced diet with Choline has been clinically shown to support healthy nervous system function, healthy cognitive functions such as alertness, concentration and memory, as well as normal physical performance. Because of its nutritive value, Choline works best when used along with other essential vitamins, minerals and amino acids that promote healthy neurological function.

Choline Safety and Usage

Choline maintains an excellent safety profile. No Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) exists for Choline because it is a nonessential nutrient that is part of the B-Complex vitamins. A daily dose of 50 to 250 milligrams has been shown to help with healthy nervous system function, mood balance and healthy cognitive functions such as attention span, focus and memory. At least 1000 milligrams of Choline daily is the recommended amount to promote optimum physical performance.

What are the potential side effects of Choline?

Side effects of Choline are rare and have been documented as mild in clinical study. They may include gastrointestinal discomfort. In the event that you experience an adverse reaction, discontinue use of this dietary supplement.

Is Choline safe for children?

Choline is generally well tolerated when used in children. Because each child is unique, Choline should be administered under the supervision of a professional healthcare provider.

Does Choline adversely interact with prescription drugs?

Choline has no known contraindications. If you are taking a prescription medication, it is recommended that you consult with your prescribing doctor before making any changes or additions to your current treatment plan.

What precautions should I take before beginning Choline?

Consult with your healthcare provider before beginning a wellness plan that includes dietary supplements like Choline.

Choline Clinical Studies

1. Generation of choline for acetylcholine synthesis by phospholipase D isoforms.
Zhao D, Frohman MA, Blusztajn JK.
Department of Pathology, Boston University, School of Medicine, USA.
BMC Neurosci. 2001;2(1):16. Epub 2001 Oct 19. PMID: 11734063 [Read the Abstract]

2. Changes in the interaction between CNS cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons induced by L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine, a cholinomimetic drug.
Trabucchi M, Govoni S, Battaini F.
Farmaco [Sci]. 1986 Apr;41(4):325-34. PMID: 3709792 [Read the Abstract]

3. Cytidine (5')diphosphocholine modulates dopamine K(+)-evoked release in striatum measured by microdialysis.
Agut J, Ortiz JA, Wurtman RJ.
Centro de Investigacion, Grupo Ferrer, Spain
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2000;920:332-5. PMID: 11193174 [Read the Abstract]

4. The dopamine D2 receptor locus as a modifying gene in neuropsychiatric disorders.
Comings DE, Comings BG, Muhleman D, Dietz G, Shahbahrami B, Tast D, Knell E, Kocsis P, Baumgarten R, Kovacs BW, et al.
Department of Medical Genetics, City of Hope National Medical Center
JAMA. 1991 Oct 2;266(13):1793-800. PMID: 1832466 [Read the Abstract]

5. Neurobiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Faraone SV, Biederman J.
Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston 02114, USA.
Biol Psychiatry. 1998 Nov 15;44(10):951-8. PMID: 9821559 [Read the Abstract]

6. Multicentre study of l-alpha-glyceryl-phosphorylcholine vs ST200 among patients with probable senile dementia of Alzheimer's type.
Parnetti L, Abate G, Bartorelli L, Cucinotta D, Cuzzupoli M, Maggioni M, Villardita C, Senin U.
Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Italy.
Drugs Aging. 1993 Mar-Apr;3(2):159-64. PMID: 8477148 [Read the Abstract]

7. Alpha-Glycerophosphocholine in the mental recovery of cerebral ischemic attacks. An Italian multicenter clinical trial.
Barbagallo Sangiorgi G, Barbagallo M, Giordano M, Meli M, Panzarasa R.
Institute of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, University of Palermo, Italy.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1994 Jun 30;717:253-69. PMID: 8030842 [Read the Abstract]

8. Cytidinediphosphocholine (CDP choline) for cognitive and behavioural disturbances associated with chronic cerebral disorders in the elderly.
Fioravanti M, Yanagi M.
Department of Psychiatric Science and Psychological Medicine, University of Rome, ITALY
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(2):CD000269.PMID: 15106147 [Read the Abstract]

9. The dopamine theory of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Levy F.
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Randwick.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 1991 Jun;25(2):277-83. PMID: 1652243 [Read the Abstract]

10. The dopaminergic system in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Ohno M.
Department of Pediatrics, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu 520-2192, Japan
genit Anom (Kyoto). 2003 Jun;43(2):114-22. PMID: 12893970 [Read the Abstract]

11. ADHD and Dopmamine - Neurotransmitter.net
Shaw Thomas
Compilation of Clinical Studies [Read the Analysis]

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Last Updated: February 2015 [PHMF-03-0]